Geography : Location & Topography



Located in the Southern part of Asia, India lies between 8°4′ and 37°6′ N Latitude and 68°7′ and 97°25′ E Longitude. This seventh largest country in the world spreads over an area of 3,166,414 sq. km., including Lakshadweep Island in the Arabian Sea and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal. India is bounded by the Arabian Sea on its west and south-west and the Bay of Bengal on its east and south-east and the Himalayan Mountain range borders the country on its north. India shares its territorial border with Afghanistan, Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh.

India is blessed with diverse topography—from mountains to plains, to plateaus, deserts, coasts, and islands. The Tropic of Cancer divides the country into two equal parts in the Northern and Southern part, and the Vindhya Mountains cut right across the country, from West to East.

The Himalayas, which forms the Northern boundary of the country, consist of three parallel series of a mountain range: the Himadri, Himachal, and Shivaliks.


India is also fortunate in possessing a wide stretch of fertile lands, made up of the alluvial soil brought down in the form of fine silt by the mighty rivers. Lying south of the Himalayas, these Great North Indian Plains consist of the Indus basin, Ganga-Brahmaputra basin, and the tributaries of these mighty river systems.

Plains of Northern India

To the south of the Great Plains of Northern India lies the Great Plateau of Peninsular India, which is divided into three parts, namely the Malwa Plateau, the Chota Nagpur Plateau and the Deccan Plateau. The Malwa plateau bounded by the Aravalli hills and the Vindhyas form the northern half of this peninsula. The valley of the Narmada River forms the Southern boundary of this plateau. Chota Nagpur Plateau lies in the Eastern part of the peninsular and is the richest minerals producing region of India. The Deccan Plateau extends from the Satpura hills in the north to Kanyakumari in South.

Towards the west of the Deccan Plateau lie the Western Ghats that comprise of the Sahyadri, the Nilgiri, the Annamalai and the Cardamom Hills. On the eastern side, this plateau merges into a layer of discontinuous low hills known as the Mahendra Giri hills, which comprise of the Eastern Ghats.

Coastal Plains

Narrow coastal plains along the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal flank the Deccan Plateau on its eastern and western sides, respectively. The Western coastal plains lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, further split into the Northern Konkan Coast and the Southern Malabar Coast. The Eastern coastal plains, on the other hand, lie between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal and like the Western plains are divided into two parts – the Coromandel Coast as the Southern part and the Northern Circars as the Northern part.


Towards the Western half of India lies a vast stretch of land that is divided by the Aravalli Mountains into two separate units. The area to the west of the Aravalli comprises of the Thar Desert – made up of sand and interrupted by rocky hills and waterless valleys. This arid land extends deep into Pakistan. The state of Gujarat lies to the east of this range and is one of the most prosperous regions in India.

India Maps


India Map Thumb

India is a vast country in the Southern portion of Asia which is bound by the Indian Ocean on its south, the Arabian Sea on its west and Bay of Bengal on its east and borders Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, China and Bangladesh on its north, northwest, northeast, and east. Physical India maps can serve as effective tools for understanding the geophysical and topological features of the Indian sub-continent. An India outline map clearly defines the geopolitical outline of the country and India political map can help better understand the political boundaries and sub-divisions of the country for all practical purposes. In the physical map of India, earthquake-prone regions (high risk) can be located as the Himalayan region, parts of North Indian plains and parts of Gujarat. India has also witnessed some of the devastating earthquakes in these regions. India is an immense country with more than a billion population. India roadmap is an excellent tool for understanding the Indian transportation network, which includes an immense road network, covering almost whole of the sub-continent. However, Indian rail network and air travel network have emerged as virtual engines of economic growth in the modern times even while falling behind the road network in terms of geographical reach.

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